"Change your thoughts and you change your world." Norman Vincent Peale
The concept of how our thoughts shape our world has been an area of special interest to philosophers, religious figures and scientists for decades.
Traditionally, philosophers and religious figures have believed that thoughts shape our world, while many scientists have taken the attitude of "Prove it to me".
Recent evidence at both the biological and higher cognitive levels of information processing suggest that our experiences and our thoughts do shape our world.
Buzan gives a general overview of neuronal transmission in the brain. He gives the analogy of how repeating experiences or reviewing knowledge is like cutting a path in a jungle. Recent research concerning the effects of repeated stimulation on neuronal transmission has provided insights concerning the process of learning.
Kandel and his associates (Kandel & Schwartz, 1982) (Carew et al., 1983) have conducted extremely important research concerning learning in the sea slug, aplysia. This organism is a prime candidate in which to observe learning, since the cells of its nervous system are large enough to be relatively easily observed.
One type of learning in particular, Pavlovian conditioning, was studied by Kandel and his associates. Pavlovian conditioning refers to the pairing of a particular stimulus which results in a particular response (called the unconditioned stimulus or UCS) that alone does not result in a response. In Pavlov's work, he observed that meat (UCS) produced salivation in a dog (UCR). He then paired a bell (CS) with the meat. After several pairing, he observed that the bell alone would produce the salivation.
In Kandel's experiments a small electric shock (UCS) was delivered to the tail of the aplysia which resulted in a gill with-drawal reflex (UCR). Following this, a brief touch with a nylon bristle to the siphon of the aplysia (CS) was paired with the shock.
After repeated pairings, the touch of the nylon bristle alone produced the withdrawal reflex. Kandel was able to observe the changes at the synapse, or gap between the neurons.
Comparing the occurrences if the pairings of the CS and UCS with the presentation of the CS alone, he found that, when the pairing occurred, the pre-synaptic membrane released a greater amount of calcium into the synapse. This increase in calcium resulted in the greater ease with which the next neuron fired, the decrease in resistance with repeated stimulation, and the strengthening of the association.
Kandel's findings provide a biological explanation for changes occurring during learning and repeated exposure.
Buzan also discusses the memory trace and the fact that when a memory trace fires repeatedly, resistance decreases and the probability that it will recur increases.
Kandel's findings provide support that repeated stimulation does result in lowered resistance (an increase in calcium in the synapse) and a physical strengthening of the path way or association between the neurons.
An interesting note concerns calcium and memory in the aged. If an elderly person has a deficiency of calcium, it is possible that this deficiency may be related to a decrease in performance on tasks requiring memory.
A second major point that Buzan is making regards the power of visualization. He suggests that, as we change our visions, we change the pattern in our brains and we create our successes.
Modern science has recently begun serious study of the effects of visualization on physiological states.
In particular, the relationship between altered states of consciousness and the physical healing process has received much attention.
One report that is representative of this growing interest is Korn's "The Use of Altered States of Consciousness and Imagery in Physical and Pain Rehabilitation" (1983).
In this report, he presents case studies of patients who have been helped by using visualization techniques. For example: An accident that left him paralyzed on the right side and aphasic. Korn reports that "return of memory and speech were facilitated by utilizing imagery of particular importance to the patient. He was a fairly compulsive individual with a large firearms collection and memory function was reestablished by having him repeatedly image the firearms, slowly but precisely returning to conscious memory the serial numbers" (p. 27).
This study is only one of a vast number of studies being reported regarding the successful use of imagery.
In addition to reported case studies, a number of recent books, well documented, have been published describing how imagery can be successfully used to enhance one's health and abilities.
Ernest Lawrence Rossi, Ph. D. has written a book, The Psychobiology of Mind-Body Healing, which provides the reader with detailed descriptions of how the mind affects healing at the biological level. For those interested in specific systems, he discusses, in depth, the autonomic nervous systems, the endocrine system, the immune system, and the neuro-peptide system.
A more popular book is Love, Medicine and Miracles by Bernie S. Siegel. M.D. Doctor Sigel has been extremely successful in treating cancer patients using techniques such as visualization.
Another interesting book is Lucid Dreaming by Steven LaBerge, Ph.D. Dr. LaBerge is a sleep researcher and has developed a technique whereby people can learn to program their dreams to envision successful events which appear to have affects in the waking state.
These books are but a few of the scientifically based Western books dealing with the power of visualization.
Eastern cultures have successfully used visualization techniques for centuries.
A very valuable book that has more of the Eastern flavour is Creative Visualization by Shakti Gawain. In this book you will find particular techniques that can be used to help you master this powerful tool.
In addition to the books listed above, a number of articles have recently been published concerning the use of visualization in training and business situations.
Two articles in particular are "What You See is What You Get" (1984) by A. D. Robinson and "Accelerated Learning" (1985) by G. Reid. These articles discuss how techniques such as guided imagery, daydreaming, and relaxation can be utilized in the workplace.
Here, Buzan states that the area of brain science is one of the most exciting fields of study. The vast amount of research certainly supports his statement.
Perhaps most exciting is the research attesting to the successful effect visualization can have on your life.
It is critical that these techniques be practiced, mastered, and used. The quote at the beginning of this section, "Change your thoughts and you change your world", was stated by a religious leader, not a scientist in the strict sense of the word.
However, scientists are now reporting evidence attesting to the truth of this important quote.
Carew TJ, Hawkins RD, Kandel ER. Differential classical conditioning of a defensive withdrawal reflex in aplysia. California Science, 219, 397-400, 1993.
Gawain S. Creative Visualisation. Bantam Books, Toronto; 1978.
Kandel ER, Schwartz JH. Molecular biology of learning: Modulation of transmitter release. Science. 1982;218:433-443.
Korn ER. The use of altered states of consciousness and imagery in physical and pain rehabilitation. Journal of Lental Imagery. 1983;7(1),2(34).
LaBerge S. Lucid dreaming. Ballantine Books, NY; 1985.
Robinson AD. What you see is what you get. Training and Development Journal. 1984;38(5):34-39, 1984.
Reid G. Accelerated learning: Technical training can be fun. Training and Development Journal. 1985;39(9):24-27.
Rossi EL. The psychobiology of mind-body healing: New concepts of therapeutic hypnosis. WW Norton & Company, NY; 1986.
Siegal BS. Love, medicine and miracles. Harper & Row Publishers, NY; 1986.